Imported cutaneous leishmaniasis: molecular investigation unveils Leishmania major in Bangladesh
Khan, Md Anik Ashfaq ; Chowdhury, Rajashree ; Nath, Rupen ; Hansen, Sören ; Nath, Progga ; Maruf, Shomik ; Abd El Wahed, Ahmed ; Mondal, Dinesh
Citable Link (URL):http://resolver.sub.uni-goettingen.de/purl?gs-1/16641
Abstract Background The main clinical forms of leishmaniasis in Bangladesh are visceral leishmaniasis and post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis, which are caused by Leishmania donovani. Imported cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is emerging globally due mainly to increased human mobility. In recent years, several imported CL cases have also been reported in Bangladesh. Sporadic atypical cases of CL can be challenging for diagnosis and clinical management, while occurrence of infection on a frequent basis can be alarming. We report of a case of a Bangladeshi temporary-migrant worker who, upon return, presented development of skin lesions that are characteristic of CL. Methods A serum sample was collected and tested with an rK39 immunochromatographic test. Nucleic acid from skin biopsy derived culture sample was extracted and screened with a real-time PCR assay which targets the conserved REPL repeat region of L. donovani complex. The internal transcribed spacer 2 region of the ribosomal RNA gene cluster was amplified and sequenced. Results The suspect had a history of travel in both CL and VL endemic areas and had a positive rK39 test result. Based on clinical presentation, travel history and demonstration of the parasite in the skin biopsy, CL was diagnosed and the patient underwent a combination therapy with Miltefosine and liposomal amphotericin B. While typical endemic species were not detected, we identified Leishmania major, a species that, to our knowledge, has never been reported in Bangladesh. Conclusions Proper monitoring and reporting of imported cases should be given careful consideration for both clinical and epidemiological reasons. Molecular tests should be performed in diagnosis to avoid dilemma, and identification of causative species should be prioritized.