Recent Submissions

  • Journal Article

    “…This Has to Do With My Identity. And I Don't Want to Make it Totally Transparent.” Identity Relevance in the Attitudes of Affected People and Laypersons to the Handling of High-Throughput Genomic Data 

    Urban, Alexander
    Frontiers in Sociology 2020; 5 p.1-17: Art. 532357
    With the establishment of genome sequencing, the influence of genomic information on self-understanding and identity construction has become increasingly important. New sequencing methods far exceed previous genetic tests in terms of scope and quantity. Despite theoretical approaches, however, there are few empirical findings on the identity-relevant influence of genomic information. The present study examines genomic information's identity-relevant influences and considers whether developments in the field of genome sequencing may generate problems that are not yet addressed by existing identity concepts based on traditional genetic tests. The study is based on 10 partially standardized interviews with personally affected persons and four focus groups with medical laypersons as representatives of the public, which were evaluated on the basis of qualitative content analysis. As a result, this paper presents five thematic areas with identity-relevant references within subjective attitudes toward the handling of genomic information, and also derives two basic identity concepts. The results indicate that the lay discourse is still strongly based on older debates about genetic testing and that the view on the complexity of genomic information established in the scientific context has thus far no influence on the perspectives either of those affected or laypersons.
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  • Journal Article

    Paratexts on a social network site and their relevance in the production of meaning—Results of a qualitative investigation of Twitter-Feeds 

    Völcker, Matthias
    PLOS ONE 2020; 15(9) p.1-27: Art. e0238765
    In this paper, paratexts as a component of developmental and marketing processes of movie-productions on Social Network Sites (SNS) are investigated. Paratexts are phenomena that prepare and accompany the reading and interpretation of texts/movies. First, a brief introduction into a complex and ambivalent state of research on paratexts will be given. Then the paper presents the results of a qualitative study, which was realized with the help of Grounded Theory, where marketing-paratexts of movie feeds on Twitter are at the center of the investigation. The research shows that movie-studios are manifoldly active on Social Network Sites and fall back on different paratextual materials that are placed around the medium as an interpretative perimeter. The associated activities are also characteristics of complex interactive processes. In this, recipients are actively involved. Producers/Production-Studios attempt to establish a relationship, whereby Social Network Sites are used as distributional and interactive platforms and as a vital part for preparing and developing a story.
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  • Journal Article

    Bringing Policy Decisions to the People—Education for Sustainable Development through a Digital Simulation Game 

    Ivens, Sven; Wiese, Gerlinde; Dittert, Klaus; Mußhoff, Oliver; Oberle, Monika
    Sustainability 2020; 12(20) p.1-18: Art. 8743
    After repeated warnings by the European Commission regarding high nitrate concentrations in German waters, in 2017, Germany implemented a new fertilizer application ordinance (FO) with stricter nitrate value limits. The new regulations have severely affected agricultural regions in Germany and could lead to a high number of job losses if farmers must conform to the new regulations and do not implement new production methods. Therefore, a simulation game was developed to educate farmers and residents about the new FO and to facilitate adaptation to the new environmentally friendly legislation. The aims of the newly developed simulation game are to educate residents and farmers in affected regions about the new FO and to develop new ideas on how to comply with the new regulations. The aims of the present study are, first, to research participants’ evaluation of the simulation game and, second, to assess the effect of the simulation game on subjective knowledge, internal efficacy, and attitude towards the new FO. This pre- and post-comparison design study was based on pre-test and post-test with participants in two games (N = 90). The results were analyzed using descriptive statistics, multiple regression analyses, qualitative content analysis, and mean value comparisons. The simulation game had a positive effect on participants’ subjective knowledge (Cohen’s d 0.65) and internal efficacy (Cohen’s d 0.36), but it did not have an effect on their attitudes toward the new FO, and it was shown to slightly lower their interest in agriculture politics (Cohen’s d −0.33). The participants reported that the game made them more aware of both the difficulty and necessity of finding compromises in the field of agriculture politics. Overall, the simulation was rated very positively and was perceived as interesting and informative by the participants.
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  • Journal Article

    Reaching the Hard-To-Reach with Civic Education on the European Union: Insights from a German Model Project 

    Oberle, Monika; Stamer, Märthe-Maria
    Social Sciences 2020; 9(10) p.1-12: Art. 173
    So-called “hard-to-reach” learners with a lower level of formal education have been identified as a “challenge” for civic education and have been neglected with regard to civic education in the past. However, these young people do deal with political processes that relate to their everyday lives; they simply do not perceive these processes as political. The same holds true for the topic of the European Union. To date, hardly any teaching concepts and learning materials for civic education on the European Union that are specially designed for hard-to-reach youth have been available. This paper discusses the relevance, challenges, and promising approaches used to address this severe deficit in the research and practice of civic education regarding the EU. It focuses on the situation in Germany and presents the Jean Monnet project “Junge Menschen erreichbar machen mit politischer Europabildung” (JUMPER). Here, workshops with a focus on the European Union are developed—specifically tailored to the needs of the target group, carried out with pupils in the vocational transition system, and accompanied by systematic evaluation. Finally, conclusions are drawn for civic education and research regarding hard-to-reach youth.
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  • Journal Article

    Visualizing the Regionalized Structure of Mobility between Countries Worldwide 

    Deutschmann, Emanuel
    Socius: Sociological Research for a Dynamic World 2020; 6 p.1-3: Art. 2378023120958564
    Despite the sociological relevance of human mobility between nation-states, our knowledge about its planet-scale structure is still limited. Here, geographic mapping, algorithm-based community detection, network visualization, and conventional line plots are combined to display the network structure of 2.3 billion estimated trips between countries worldwide in 2016, together with information about the (non)evolution of this structure over time. The graph reveals that transnational mobility is highly regionalized: 80 percent of all human movements between countries occur within world regions. Despite strong increases in the absolute amount of transnational mobility, this share remains extremely stable between 2011 and 2016. The community detection algorithm reveals six mobility clusters that clearly correspond to world regions: Africa, Asia and Oceania, the Americas, Eurasia, Europe, and the Middle East. This stable, regionalized structure suggests that a fully globalized “world society” is unlikely to emerge, as social ties remain parochial, even in the transnational sphere.
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  • Journal Article

    Does Scientific Evaluation Matter? Improving Digital Simulation Games by Design-Based Research 

    Ivens, Sven; Oberle, Monika
    Social Sciences 2020; 9(9) p.1-14: Art. 155
    Grounded in a design-based research approach, the aim of this article is to determine whether scientific evaluations help to (a) identify and fix problems in educational interventions and (b) eventually foster a more effective and positive evaluated intervention. Therefore, data from a longer-term evaluation of short digital simulation games about the European Parliament for civic education in schools were used. The data included three cycles of interventions with pre- and post-evaluations starting with the first prototype in 2015/2016 (n = 209), the second cycle in 2017/18 (n = 97), and the last one in 2019/20 (n = 222). After each evaluation, major problems and critiques regarding the simulation game were discussed with the developers, and changes were implemented in the game design. The four most important problems, the processes by which they were improved and the reactions of the participants in the following evaluations are pointed out in the article. A comparison of the last and first evaluation cycle showed an overall improvement of the simulation game regarding its effectiveness in transferring EU knowledge and the participants’ general satisfaction with the simulation game. This study underlines the value of the design-based research approach for developing educational interventions and can be useful for further work on civic education measures and the implementation of digital simulation games.
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  • Journal Article

    Return-To-Play Decision Making in Team Sports Athletes. A Quasi-Naturalistic Scenario Study 

    Mayer, Jochen; Burgess, Stephanie; Thiel, Ansgar
    Frontiers in Psychology 2020; 11 p.1-14: Art. 1020
    Competitive athletes act within cultures of risk in sports and often decide to return to sport despite having acute health problems. The outcomes of such risky return-to-play decisions can not only negatively affect their future health, but may also limit their sports performance or even upset their career paths. Following risk-management-decision theory with its focus on active risk defusing, we developed a model for understanding the process of return-to-play decision making from an athlete’s perspective. Based on the method of active information search, a quasi-naturalistic return-to-play decision scenario was created in order to assess amateur team sport athletes’ decision-making strategies. The main goals were to identify different information acquisition patterns and to analyze the influence of varying sporting consequences on decision making. A total of 72 competitive team sport athletes (36 females, 36 males, m = 25.7 years of age, 3rd to 6th league level) from three disciplines (volleyball, basketball, and handball) participated in the experimental study. Facing the same medical scenario (a partial tear of the supraspinatus tendon), athletes show different approaches to return-to-play decision making. The main focus is on the potential sporting consequences of withdrawal from competition due to injury, with only a few players favoring well-informed decisions based on thorough risk analysis. The athletes who chose the medically risky alternative to play hurt mostly employed strategies of active risk defusing, which got activated when severe sporting consequences were perceived. Those who chose to withdraw from competition primarily referred to maximin heuristic, particularly when social pressure to play was reduced. The findings can be used to improve rehabilitation-related communication and shared return-to-play decision making in sports.
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  • Journal Article

    Human rights in countries of origin and the mental health of migrants to Canada 

    Joly, Marie-Pier; Wheaton, Blair
    SSM - Population Health 2020; 11 p.1-10: Art. 100571
    This study explores the effect of human rights violations in countries of origin on migrants’ mental health, using archival data on human rights violations from 1970-2011, merged to a representative probability sample of 2412 adults living in a large Canadian metropolitan area. The context of exit is defined at the country level, as opposed to self-reported individual experiences of trauma. While most studies start from a question about direct exposure to human rights violations, they may miss the effect of the national-level social context - threat, instability, disruption of lives, and uncertainty - on mental health. Findings indicate that high levels of human rights violations in countries of origin have long-term effects on migrants’ mental health. The impact of human rights violations is substantially explained by the combined effect of stressors both before and after migration, suggesting a cumulative process of stress proliferation following this context of exit.
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  • Journal Article

    Why companies prefer applicants from non-immigrant families: investigating access to vocational training among low-qualified adolescents with an interlinked firm-applicant survey 

    Söhn, Janina
    Empirical Research in Vocational Education and Training. 2020 May 30;12(1):4
    In the German system of dual vocational training, in which companies recruit apprentices, graduates from low-level secondary schools (Hauptschule), and particularly those from immigrant families, are at a significant disadvantage regarding access to such apprenticeships. Previous qualitative studies have already pointed to the role of companies’ recruiting criteria for mechanisms of indirect discrimination, e.g., their desire for smooth social interaction within the firm. This article builds on a standardized survey among companies to which low-skilled adolescents successfully or unsuccessfully applied for dual vocational training. The company data are matched with secondary longitudinal survey data on the same girls and boys. Which recruiting criteria put ethnic minorities at a disadvantage and hence indirectly facilitate ethnic discrimination? The theoretical approach considers (knowledge of) the immigration country’s official language as both a functional requirement and a tool of hierarchical ethnic boundary making. In addition, concepts of social interaction within firms and respective norms as well as of homophily are subjected to an empirical test. Statistical results show that the below-average recruitment chances of applicants with a migration background are somewhat lower if companies stress a social fit criterion in their selection procedures. Furthermore, contrary to the initial hypothesis, ethnic minority youths are only substantially disadvantaged when applying to firms which consider the ability of verbal expression less crucial. Firms which consider this criterion very important may give applicants from immigrant families the chance to present themselves in a job interview and thus dispel ethnic stereotypes like the one that second-generation immigrant youths display serious language deficiencies.
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  • Journal Article

    Making Cultural Heritage Claims on Profitable Land: The Case of the Ngassa Wells in Uganda’s Oil Region: Kontroverse um kulturelles Erbe auf lukrativem Land: Der Fall der Ngassa-Bohrlöcher in Ugandas Ölregion 

    Nakayi, Rose; Witte, Annika
    Africa Spectrum 2020; 54(3) p.222-243
    In the exploration phase of Uganda’s oil project, controversy arose regarding the drilling of wells on the grounds of important shrines of spirits of the adjacent Lake Albert. While the oil companies and the state looked at the market value of the land, the claimants emphasised its cultural heritage value, building a link to an international heritage discussion. This article argues that, while they have been barred from political influence on the oil project, cultural institutions such as the Bunyoro Kingdom and the claimants in the village near the controversial well used cultural heritage as a vantage point to get their voices heard and to gain negotiating power in the project. The article shows how widening of the definition of cultural heritage – which means dropping a bias for built infrastructure – has put culture alongside politics, economics, and the environment as an important factor to consider in extractive projects.
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  • Journal Article

    Legitimacy and the Cognitive Sources of International Institutional Change: The Case of Regional Parliamentarization 

    Lenz, Tobias; Burilkov, Alexandr; Viola, Lora Anne
    International Studies Quarterly 2019; 63(4) p.1094-1107
    How and under what conditions does legitimacy affect processes of international institutional change? This article specifiesand evaluates three causal mechanisms by which variation in legitimacy induces institutional change in international organi-zations (IOs) and argues that an important, yet hitherto neglected, source of legitimacy-based change is cognitive in nature.Using survival analysis, we evaluate these mechanisms with a novel dataset on the establishment of parliamentary institutionsin thirty-six regional organizations between 1950 and 2010. We find that the empowerment of supranational secretariats, en-gagement with the European Union, and parliamentarization in an organization’s neighborhood increase the likelihood ofregional parliamentarization. This suggests that legitimacy judgments that draw on cognitive referents provide an importantsource of international institutional change. We illustrate the underlying cognitive emulation mechanism with a case study ofparliamentarization in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations.
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  • Journal Article

    Improvement and use of CRISPR/Cas9 to engineer a sperm-marking strain for the invasive fruit pest Drosophila suzukii 

    Ahmed, Hassan M. M.; Hildebrand, Luisa; Wimmer, Ernst A.
    BMC Biotechnology. 2019 Dec 05;19(1):85
    Background The invasive fruit pest Drosophila suzukii was reported for the first time in Europe and the USA in 2008 and has spread since then. The adoption of type II clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated (Cas) as a tool for genome manipulation provides new ways to develop novel biotechnologically-based pest control approaches. Stage or tissue-specifically expressed genes are of particular importance in the field of insect biotechnology. The enhancer/promoter of the spermatogenesis-specific beta-2-tubulin (β2t) gene was used to drive the expression of fluorescent proteins or effector molecules in testes of agricultural pests and disease vectors for sexing, monitoring, and reproductive biology studies. Here, we demonstrate an improvement to CRISPR/Cas-based genome editing in D. suzukii and establish a sperm-marking system. Results To improve genome editing, we isolated and tested the D. suzukii endogenous promoters of the small nuclear RNA gene U6 to drive the expression of a guide RNA and the Ds heat shock protein 70 promoter to express Cas9. For comparison, we used recombinant Cas9 protein and in vitro transcribed gRNA as a preformed ribonucleoprotein. We demonstrate the homology-dependent repair (HDR)-based genome editing efficiency by applying a previously established transgenic line that expresses DsRed ubiquitously as a target platform. In addition, we isolated the Ds_β2t gene and used its promoter to drive the expression of a red fluorescence protein in the sperm. A transgenic sperm-marking strain was then established by the improved HDR-based genome editing. Conclusion The deployment of the endogenous promoters of the D. suzukii U6 and hsp70 genes to drive the expression of gRNA and Cas9, respectively, enabled the effective application of helper plasmid co-injections instead of preformed ribonucleoproteins used in previous reports for HDR-based genome editing. The sperm-marking system should help to monitor the success of pest control campaigns in the context of the Sterile Insect Technique and provides a tool for basic research in reproductive biology of this invasive pest. Furthermore, the promoter of the β2t gene can be used in developing novel transgenic pest control approaches and the CRISPR/Cas9 system as an additional tool for the modification of previously established transgenes.
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  • Journal Article

    Equality prescribed? Contextual determinants of citizens’ support for gender boardroom quotas across Europe 

    Möhring, Katja; Teney, Céline
    Comparative European Politics
    We provide the first cross-national comparative study of citizens’ support for affirmative action policies in the economy using the example of gender quotas for company boards. In contrast to previous studies, we focus on the contextual level and analyse how factors related to political institutions and actors, and economic and social structure shape citizens’ support and the gap in support between men and women. We apply multilevel regression analyses of Eurobarometer data for 27 European countries. Levels of support and gender gaps in support for boardroom quotas vary largely between countries. Contextual factors related to existing quota laws, gender equality in social and economic life, and public opinion towards state intervention are important determinants of cross-national variation. Our results point to an ambiguous relationship of support for gender quotas and actual gender equality in a country. Citizens’ endorsement of quotas is low in countries with high levels of formal gender equality. Support is higher in countries where interventionist policies are widely accepted. Also, existing quota laws are positively related to citizens’ support of boardroom quotas.
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  • Journal Article

    Legitimacy and institutional change in international organisations: a cognitive approach 

    Lenz, Tobias; Viola, Lora Anne
    Review of International Studies 2017; 43(5) p.939-961
    Why are some institutional designs perceived as more legitimate than others, and why is the same institutional design sometimes perceived as legitimacy-enhancing in one setting and not in another? In a world in which most international organisations (IOs) do not fully embody societal values and norms, such as democratic participation and equal treatment, why do legitimacy deficits in some organisations lead to pressure for institutional change while in others they are tolerated? These are important questions given that many analysts have diagnosed a ‘legitimacy crisis’ of IOs, but we argue that existing approaches are ill equipped to answer them. We show that the existing legitimacy literature has an implicit model of institutional change – the congruence model – but that this model has difficulty accounting for important patterns of change and non-change because it lacks microfoundations. We argue that attributions of legitimacy rest on perceptions and this implies the need to investigate the cognitive bases of legitimacy. We introduce a cognitive model of legitimacy and deduce a set of testable propositions to explain the conditions under which legitimacy judgments change and, in turn, produce pressures for institutional change in IOs.
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  • Journal Article

    Students and society in the 2020s. Three future ‘histories’ of education and technology 

    Macgilchrist, Felicitas; Allert, Heidrun; Bruch, Anne
    Learning, Media and Technology p.1-14
    As social science fiction, this paper imagines three possible futures for education and technology. Among the most important technologies emerging today are data-aggregating technologies such as AI, affective computing, adaptive or predictive software, clouds and platforms. The paper is not, however, directed at specific technologies, but at indeterminate sociotechnical configurations. Set in 2040, it offers three ‘histories’ of the 2020s. Might students become (i) ‘smooth users’, improving themselves in the pursuit of frictionless efficiency within a post-democratic frame created by large corporations, (ii) ‘digital nomads’, seeking freedom, individualism and aesthetic joy as solopreneurs exploiting state regulations and algorithmic rules while stepping out of the state and deeply into the capitalist new economy, or (iii) participatory, democratic, ecological humans embedded in ‘collective agency’ that see institutions as spaces for exploring more equitable ways of living? The paper reflects on the future research and the political, educational and technological decisions which would make each of these three fictional future histories more or less likely.
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  • Journal Article

    Dissecting global air traffic data to discern different types and trends of transnational human mobility 

    Gabrielli, Lorenzo; Deutschmann, Emanuel; Natale, Fabrizio; Recchi, Ettore; Vespe, Michele
    EPJ Data Science. 2019 Aug 30;8(1):26
    Abstract Human mobility across national borders is a key phenomenon of our time. At the global scale, however, we still know relatively little about the structure and nature of such transnational movements. This study uses a large dataset on monthly air passenger traffic between 239 countries worldwide from 2010 to 2018 to gain new insights into (a) mobility trends over time and (b) types of mobility. A time series decomposition is used to extract a trend and a seasonal component. The trend component permits—at a higher level of granularity than previous sources—to examine the development of mobility between countries and to test how it is affected by policy and infrastructural changes, economic developments, and violent conflict. The seasonal component allows, by measuring the lag between initial and return motion, to discern different types of mobility, from tourism to seasonal work migration. Moreover, the exact shape of seasonal mobility patterns is extracted, allowing to identify regular mobility peaks and nadirs throughout the year. The result is a unique classification of trends and types of mobility for a global set of country pairs. A range of implications and possible applications are discussed.
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  • Journal Article

    Promoting reading attitudes of girls and boys: a new challenge for educational policy? Multi-group analyses across four European countries 

    Nonte, Sonja; Hartwich, Lea; Willems, Ariane S.
    Large-scale Assessments in Education. 2018 May 28;6(1):5
    Background Numerous studies have investigated the relationships between various student, home and contextual factors and reading achievement. However, the relationship between such factors and reading attitudes has been investigated far less, despite the fact that theoretical frameworks of large-scale assessments and school effectiveness research emphasize the importance of non-cognitive outcomes. Methods Based on a series of multi-group analyses using a structural equation modeling approach, we elucidate the relationships between student attitudes toward reading and student-, home- and context-related factors. In order to shed light on the role of different educational systems, we make use of the representative data from four national PIRLS samples (France, Germany, Italy and the Netherlands) from 2011 (n = 16,622). As gender differences are apparent in reading achievement and reading choices, we apply a multi-group comparative approach in order to control for potential gender-biased estimates caused by measurement non-invariance of the PIRLS instrument Attitude toward Reading. Results Our results reveal the importance of individual student and home characteristics for promoting students’ reading attitudes, particularly the number of books at home and the amount of reading outside school. Our results also indicate that school- and classroom-related factors such as the time spent on reading and the availability of a classroom or school library show no or only little interrelation with students’ reading attitudes. These findings are relatively stable in the cross-country comparison. Conclusions As expected, our results also support previous findings on gender differences in reading attitudes, as girls show more positive attitudes toward reading than boys. The implications of these results for researchers, politicians and practitioners are discussed.
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  • Journal Article

    Locum physicians’ professional ethos: a qualitative interview study from Germany 

    Salloch, Sabine; Apitzsch, Birgit; Wilkesmann, Maximiliane; Ruiner, Caroline
    BMC Health Services Research. 2018 May 08;18(1):333
    Background In contrast to other countries, the appearance of locum physicians as independent contractors constitutes a rather new phenomenon in the German health care system and emerged out of a growing economization and shortage of medical staff in the hospital sector. Locums are a special type of self-employed professionals who are only temporally embedded in organisational contexts of hospitals, and this might have consequences for their professional practice. Therefore, questions arise regarding how locums perceive their ethical duties as medical professionals. Methods In this first qualitative study on German locum physicians, the locums’ own perspective is complemented by the viewpoint of permanently employed physician colleagues. Eighteen semi-structured interviews were conducted in 2014 to explore the professional practice of locum physicians from both groups’ perspectives with respect to doctor-patient-relationship, cooperation with colleagues and physicians’ role in society. The data were analysed using qualitative content analysis, including a deductive application and an inductive development of codes. The results were related to key tenets of medical professionalism with respect to the question: how far do locums fulfil their ethical duties towards patients, colleagues and the society? Results The study indicates that although ethical requirements are met broadly, difficulties remain with respect to close doctor–patient contact and the sustainability of hiring locums as a remedy in times of staff shortage. Conclusions Further qualitative and quantitative research on locum physicians’ professional practice, including patient perspectives and economic health care system analyses, is needed to better understand the ethical impact of hiring independent contractors in the hospital sector.
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  • Journal Article

    Institutional pioneers in world politics: Regional institution building and the influence of the European Union 

    Lenz, Tobias; Burilkov, Alexandr
    European Journal of International Relations 2017; 23(3) p.654-680
    What drives processes of institution building within regional international organizations? We challenge those established theories of regionalism, and of institutionalized cooperation more broadly, that treat different organizations as independent phenomena whose evolution is conditioned primarily by internal causal factors. Developing the basic premise of ‘diffusion theory’ — meaning that decision-making is interdependent across organizations — we argue that institutional pioneers, and specifically the European Union, shape regional institution-building processes in a number of discernible ways. We then hypothesize two pathways — active and passive — of European Union influence, and stipulate an endogenous capacity for institutional change as a key scope condition for their operation. Drawing on a new and original data set on the institutional design of 34 regional international organizations in the period from 1950 to 2010, the article finds that: (1) both the intensity of a regional international organization’s structured interaction with the European Union (active influence) and the European Union’s own level of delegation (passive influence) are associated with higher levels of delegation within other regional international organizations; (2) passive European Union influence exerts a larger overall substantive effect than active European Union influence does; and (3) these effects are strongest among those regional international organizations that are based on founding contracts containing open-ended commitments. These findings indicate that the creation and subsequent institutional evolution of the European Union has made a difference to the evolution of institutions in regional international organizations elsewhere, thereby suggesting that existing theories of regionalism are insufficiently able to account for processes of institution building in such contexts.
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  • Journal Article

    Puangthong R. Pawakapan, State and Uncivil Society in Thailand at the Temple of Preah Vihear. Singapore: ISEAS, 2013, 124 pp. ISBN 9789814459907. Price: USD 19.90 (paperback). 

    Hauser-Schäublin, Brigitta
    Bijdragen tot de taal-, land- en volkenkunde / Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences of Southeast Asia 2013; 170(4) p.597-598
    not available
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