Recent Submissions

  • Journal Article

    The impact of co-national networks on asylum seekers’ employment: Quasi-experimental evidence from Germany 

    Stips, Felix; Kis-Katos, Krisztina
    PLOS ONE 2020; 15(8) p.1-22: Art. e0236996
    Using novel registry data on persons receiving asylum welfare benefits in Germany for the period from 2010 to 2016, and quasi-experimental variation induced by German allocation policies, we identify the role that the size and composition of local co-national networks of asylum seekers play for formal labor market access within the same group. While the individual employment probability is not linked to network size, it increases with the number of employed local co-national asylum seekers and decreases with the number of non-employed network members, thereby underlining the central importance of network quality. JEL Classification: F22, J61, R23.
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  • Journal Article

    Mental distress and its association with sociodemographic and economic characteristics: community-based household survey in Aceh, Indonesia 

    Reuter, Anna; Vollmer, Sebastian; Aiyub, A.; Susanti, Suryane Sulistiana; Marthoenis, M.
    BJPsych Open 2020; 6(6) p.1-9: Art. e134
    Background: The role of sociodemographic and economic characteristics in mental distress has been rarely investigated in Indonesia. Aims: To investigate the prevalence of common mental disorders (CMD) and identify any associations between mental distress and sociodemographic and economic characteristics among communities living in urban and rural (peri-urban) areas. Method: A community-based household survey was conducted in the province of Aceh, Indonesia, in 2018. The 20-item Self Reporting: Questionnaire (SRQ-20) screening tool was used to measure symptoms of CMD. Information on sociodemographic characteristics, family functioning, labour market outcomes and healthcare costs was collected. Multivariate regressions were conducted to analyse the relationships between the measures of mental distress and sociodemographic and economic characteristics. Results: We found that 14% of the respondents had CMD symptoms. SRQ-20 scores were higher for female, older and lower-educated individuals. CMD prevalence was higher among non-married participants and clustered within families. Participants with CMD perceive their families as performing significantly better in the dimensions of affective involvement and behaviour control compared with their counterparts. Their work was more often affected by negative feelings; they were also twice as likely to report a recent physical or mental health complaint and faced twice the treatment costs compared with their non-affected counterparts. Conclusions: The prevalence of mental disorders is especially high in disadvantaged population groups. Moreover, mental distress is associated with a lower perceived productivity and a higher physical health burden.
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  • Journal Article

    Flexibility management and provision of balancing services with battery-electric automated guided vehicles in the Hamburg container terminal Altenwerder 

    Holly, Stefanie; Nieße, Astrid; Tröschel, Martin; Hammer, Lasse; Franzius, Christoph; Dmitriyev, Viktor; Dorfner, Johannes; Veith, Eric M; Harnischmacher, Christine; Greve, Maike; et al.
    Masuch, KristinKolbe, LutzWulff, BorisKretz, Julian
    Energy Informatics 2020; 3(Suppl 1) p.1-20: Art. 26
    Abstract Unlocking and managing flexibility is an important contribution to the integration of renewable energy and an efficient and resilient operation of the power system. In this paper, we discuss how the potential of a fleet of battery-electric transportation vehicles can be used to provide frequency containment reserve. To this end, we first examine the use case in detail and then present the system designed to meet this challenge. We give an overview of the tasks and individual sub-components, consisting of (a) an artificial neural network to predict the availability of Automated Guided Vehicles (AGVs) day-ahead, (b) a heuristic approach to compute marketable flexibility, (c) a simulation to check the plausibility of flexibility schedules, (d) a multi-agent system to continuously monitor and control the AGVs and (e) the integration of fleet flexibility into a virtual power plant. We also present our approach to the economic analysis of this provision of a system-critical service in a logistical context characterised by high uncertainty and variability.
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  • Journal Article

    Valuation with mixed financing strategies 

    Dierkes, Stefan; de Maeyer, Imke
    In corporate valuation, it is common to assume either passive or active debt management. However, it is questionable whether these pure financing policies reflect the real financing policies of firms with a sufficient degree of accuracy. This shortcoming has led to the development of mixed financing strategies as combinations of pure financing strategies. Whereas hybrid financing is directly linked to the two-phase model, it is unclear how to apply discontinuous financing in such a setting. In this study, according to the two versions of hybrid financing, we analyze the implementation of discontinuous financing in a two-phase model. Thereby, we present a simpler and more intuitive derivation of the valuation equation for discontinuous financing to increase its acceptance and its use for corporate valuation practice. Moreover, we compare the different mixed financing strategies with each other theoretically, and we conduct simulations to elucidate the impact on market values and the sensitivities of input parameters. The study concludes that the presented mixed financing strategies can help in the attempt to reflect the real financing behavior of firms more accurately and, therefore, constitute a valuable alternative to pure financing strategies for valuation.
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  • Journal Article

    Gender differences in multi-employee gift exchange with self-reported contributions 

    Grimm, Veronika; Rau, Holger A.; Schächtele, Simeon
    PLOS ONE 2020; 15(9) p.1-19: Art. e0238236
    Gender-wage gaps are an important phenomenon on labor markets. They can possibly be caused by the institutional framework. This question is addressed in this paper. When only joint output can be observed in team production, individuals may submit self-reports of their contribution to a principal. In a multi-employee gift exchange experiment, we study how men and women behave differently with and without such self-reports. We cannot reject that self-reports left the overall efficiency of the gift exchange interaction unchanged, but detect notable gender differences. Women reported similar effort levels as men, but contributed significantly less. The difference in contributions led to a significant gender gap in wages, depending on gender group composition. These effects were only present when participants did not know each other’s gender, however. When instead gender was observable, the behavior of men and women converged. The results suggest that parts of wage gaps may be related to different behavior within incomplete contract and imperfect information environments, depending on details of the informational context.
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  • Journal Article

    Breathing life into consumer rights: smartphone tools facilitating the “right to know” on substances of very high concern in REACH articles 

    Schenten, Julian; Brenig, Mattheus; Führ, Martin; Bizer, Kilian
    Environmental Sciences Europe. 2020 Sep 08;32(1):114
    Background The EU chemicals regulation “Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals” (REACH) aims to reduce the usage of substances of very high concern (SVHCs) by firms. Therefore, a consumer right-to-know about SVHCs in articles is intended to create market-based incentives. However, awareness of the right-to-know among EU citizens is low. Moreover, the response window of 45 days afforded to suppliers impedes immediate, informed decisions by consumers. Consequently, despite being in effect for more than 10 years, only few consumer send requests. Civil society actors have developed smartphone applications reducing information search costs, allowing users to send right-to-know requests upon scanning an article’s barcode. Answers are stored in a database and made available to the public immediately. This paper assesses to which extent smartphone tools contribute to an increased use of the right-to-know by undertaking a case study of the application “ToxFox” by the German non-profit organisation Bund für Umwelt und Naturschutz Deutschland (BUND). Results An analysis of the data from the BUND database for the period 2016 to 2018 reveals that about 20 thousand users have sent almost 49 thousand requests. This has led to more than 9 thousand database entries, including 189 articles which contain SVHCs above the legal threshold. The data also indicate that receiving information on requested articles encourages further use of the application. Many suppliers accept the application and pro-actively provide information on articles without SVHCs above the threshold. However, most consumers use the application only for a short time, and suppliers are struggling to reply to right-to-know requests. Conclusion Evaluating the results, the study identifies options to enhance the application’s design in terms of user motivation and legal certainty, and to enhance the framework governing "barcode" assignments to articles with a view to better contributing to transparency. As for policy implications, a lack of consumer requests can in part be traced back to design flaws of the right-to-know and a lack of implementation and enforcement of REACH. In addition, suppliers have to increase their supply chain communication efforts to make sure they are in a position to properly answer consumer requests. We recommend several policy options addressing these and additional aspects, thus contributing to the legislative review of Art. 33 REACH.
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  • Journal Article

    Mapping disparities in education across low- and middle-income countries 

    Local Burden of Disease Educational Attainment Collaborators
    Nature 2019; 577(7789) p.235-238
    Educational attainment is an important social determinant of maternal, newborn, and child health1,2,3. As a tool for promoting gender equity, it has gained increasing traction in popular media, international aid strategies, and global agenda-setting4,5,6. The global health agenda is increasingly focused on evidence of precision public health, which illustrates the subnational distribution of disease and illness7,8; however, an agenda focused on future equity must integrate comparable evidence on the distribution of social determinants of health9,10,11. Here we expand on the available precision SDG evidence by estimating the subnational distribution of educational attainment, including the proportions of individuals who have completed key levels of schooling, across all low- and middle-income countries from 2000 to 2017. Previous analyses have focused on geographical disparities in average attainment across Africa or for specific countries, but—to our knowledge—no analysis has examined the subnational proportions of individuals who completed specific levels of education across all low- and middle-income countries12,13,14. By geolocating subnational data for more than 184 million person-years across 528 data sources, we precisely identify inequalities across geography as well as within populations.
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  • Journal Article

    Treatment effects beyond the mean using distributional regression: Methods and guidance 

    Hohberg, Maike; Pütz, Peter; Kneib, Thomas
    PLOS ONE 2020; 15(2) p.1-29: Art. e0226514
    This paper introduces distributional regression also known as generalized additive models for location, scale and shape (GAMLSS) as a modeling framework for analyzing treatment effects beyond the mean. In contrast to mean regression models, GAMLSS relate each distributional parameter to covariates. Therefore, they can be used to model the treatment effect not only on the mean but on the whole conditional distribution. Since they encompass a wide range of different distributions, GAMLSS provide a flexible framework for modeling non-normal outcomes in which additionally nonlinear and spatial effects can easily be incorporated. We elaborate on the combination of GAMLSS with program evaluation methods including randomized controlled trials, panel data techniques, difference in differences, instrumental variables, and regression discontinuity design. We provide practical guidance on the usage of GAMLSS by reanalyzing data from the Mexican Progresa program. Contrary to expectations, no significant effects of a cash transfer on the conditional consumption inequality level between treatment and control group are found.
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  • Journal Article

    Individual-level predictors of practices of nutrition-specific and nutrition-sensitive interventions for infants and young children in West and Central Africa: a cross-sectional study 

    Sagalova, Vera; Zagre, Noel Marie; Vollmer, Sebastian
    BMJ Open 2020; 10(1) p.1-9: Art. e036350
    Objectives:To explore the role of individual-level and household-level characteristics for practice of nutrition-specific and nutrition-sensitive interventions. Design: Secondary data analysis (cross-sectional). Setting: West and Central Africa. Participants: Data are from the Demographic and Health Surveys in the time period between 1986 and 2016. The final sample included between 116325 and 272238 observations depending on the outcome. Primary and secondary outcome measures: Nutrition-specific and nutrition-sensitive interventions were identified based on the UNICEF Conceptual Framework for child undernutrition. These were early breastfeeding initiation, minimum dietary diversity, full age-appropriate immunisation, iodised salt usage, vitamin A supplementation, iron supplementation, deworming in children aged 1 to 5, clean cooking fuel, safe drinking water and improved sanitation. Explanatory variables include household, mother and child characteristics. Linear probability models were fitted for each outcome, both unadjusted as well as fully adjusted including primary sampling unit fixed effects. Results: Prevalence of early breastfeeding initiation was 54.31% (95%CI: 53.22% to 55.41%), minimum dietary diversity 13.89% (95%CI: 13.19% to 14.59%), full age-appropriate immunisation 13.04% (95%CI: 12.49% to 13.59%), iodised salt usage 49.66% (95%CI: 46.79% to 52.53%), vitamin A supplementation 52.87% (95%CI:51.41% to 54.33%), iron supplementation 10.73% (95%CI:10.07% to 11.39%), deworming 31.33% (95% CI: 30.06% to 32.60%), clean cooking fuel usage 3.02% (95% CI: 2.66% to 3.38%), safe drinking water 57.85% (95% CI: 56.10% to 59.59%) and improved sanitation 42.49% (95% CI: 40.77% to 44.21%). There was a positive education and wealth gradient for the practices of all interventions except deworming. Higher birth order was positively associated with the practice of early breastfeeding initiation, minimum dietary diversity, vitamin A supplementation and negatively associated with full immunisation and improved sanitation. Conclusions: Household, maternal, and child-level characteristics explain practices of nutrition-specific and nutrition-sensitive interventions beyond intervention delivery at the regional level.
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  • Journal Article

    Determinants of customer satisfaction with a true door-to-door DRT service in rural Germany 

    Avermann, Niklas; Schlüter, Jan
    Research in Transportation Business & Management 2019; 32: Art. 100420
    The effects of demographic change and the lack of acceptance represent some of the main problems for the public transport infrastructure in rural areas. As a consequence, the development of new transport service options becomes especially relevant for rural communities. The Max-Planck-Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organization developed a new form of Demand Responsive Transport the EcoBus to examine the viability of new DRT systems in rural Germany. Our work draws on customer satisfaction data during the trial runs of the EcoBus. Based on the survey data, this paper develops regression models to explain the determinants of DRT customer satisfaction. Our main findings include the importance of waiting times and the ease of entry for overall customer satisfaction. Nevertheless, we found no evidence that the presence of other guests in the vehicle had any negative impact on customer satisfaction. Findings of other works that women are significantly more likely to use DRT services could not be validated from our data.
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  • Journal Article

    Selection biases and spillovers from collective conservation incentives in the Peruvian Amazon 

    Giudice, Renzo; Börner, Jan; Wunder, Sven; Cisneros, Elias
    Environmental Research Letters 2019; 14(4): Art. 045004
    Payments for ecosystem services are becoming popular components in strategies to conserve ecosystems and biodiversity, but their effectiveness remains poorly documented. Here we present counterfactual-based evidence on the conservation outcomes of the pilot stage of Peru’s National Forest Conservation Program (NFCP). The NFCP provides direct payments to indigenous communities in the Amazon, conditional on avoided deforestation and the adoption of sustainable production systems. Using a spatially explicit quasi-experimental evaluation design, we show that the payment scheme has achieved only small conservation impacts, in terms of avoided deforestation. Counter-intuitively, these materialized largely on land not enrolled for conservation, due to spillover effects. Conservation effects on contracted land were negligible because communities were not chosen according to high deforestation threats, and they self-enrolled low-pressure forest areas for conservation. Occasional non-sanctioned contract incompliance contributed to these outcomes.We highlight implications for the design and implementation of up-scaled national conservation programs. Methodologically, we demonstrate the important role of choosing the appropriate spatial scale in evaluating area-based conservation measures.
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  • Journal Article

    Asymptotic Distribution and Simultaneous Confidence Bands for Ratios of Quantile Functions 

    Dunker, Fabian; Klasen, Stephan; Krivobokova, Tatyana
    Electronic Journal of Statistics 2019; 13(2) p.4391-4415
    Ratios of medians or other suitable quantiles of two distributions are widely used in medical research to compare treatment and control groups or in economics to compare various economic variables when repeated cross-sectional data are available. Inspired by the so-called growth incidence curves introduced in poverty research, we argue that the ratio of quantile functions is a more appropriate and informative tool to compare two distributions. We present an estimator for the ratio of quantile functions and develop corresponding simultaneous confidence bands, which allow to assess significance of certain features of the quantile functions ratio. Derived simultaneous confidence bands rely on the asymptotic distribution of the quantile functions ratio and do not require re-sampling techniques. The performance of the simultaneous confidence bands is demonstrated in simulations. Analysis of expenditure data from Uganda in years 1999, 2002 and 2005 illustrates the relevance of our approach.
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  • Journal Article

    Distributional Regression Techniques in Socioeconomic Research on the Inequality of Health with an Application on the Relationship between Mental Health and Income 

    Silbersdorff, Alexander; Schneider, Kai Sebastian
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 2019; 16(20): Art. 4009
    This study addresses the much-discussed issue of the relationship between health and income. In particular, it focuses on the relation between mental health and household income by using generalized additive models of location, scale and shape and thus employing a distributional perspective. Furthermore, this study aims to give guidelines to applied researchers interested in taking a distributional perspective on health inequalities. In our analysis we use cross-sectional data of the German socioeconomic Panel (SOEP). We find that when not only looking at the expected mental health score of an individual but also at other distributional aspects, like the risk of moderate and severe mental illness, that the relationship between income and mental health is much more pronounced. We thus show that taking a distributional perspective, can add to and indeed enrich the mostly mean-based assessment of existent health inequalities.
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  • Journal Article

    The effect of bigger human bodies on the future global calorie requirements 

    Depenbusch, Lutz; Klasen, Stephan
    PLOS ONE 2019; 14(12): Art. e0223188
    Existing studies show how population growth and rising incomes will cause a massive increase in the future global demand for food. We add to the literature by estimating the potential effect of increases in human weight, caused by rising BMI and height, on future calorie requirements. Instead of using a market based approach, the estimations are solely based on human energy requirements for maintenance of weight. We develop four different scenarios to show the effect of increases in human height and BMI. In a world where the weight per age-sex group would stay stable, we project calorie requirements to increases by 61.05 percent between 2010 and 2100. Increases in BMI and height could add another 18.73 percentage points to this. This additional increase amounts to more than the combined calorie requirements of India and Nigeria in 2010. These increases would particularly affect Sub-Saharan African countries, which will already face massively rising calorie requirements due to the high population growth. The stark regional differences call for policies that increase food access in currently economically weak regions. Such policies should shift consumption away from energy dense foods that promote overweight and obesity, to avoid the direct burden associated with these conditions and reduce the increases in required calories. Supplying insufficient calories would not solve the problem but cause malnutrition in populations with weak access to food. As malnutrition is not reducing but promoting rises in BMI levels, this might even aggravate the situation
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  • Journal Article

    Mothers’ experiences of quality of care and potential benefits of implementing the WHO safe childbirth checklist: a case study of Aceh Indonesia 

    Doria, Siobhan; Diba, Farah; Susanti, Suryane S.; Vollmer, Sebastian; Monfared, Ida G.
    BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. 2019 Dec 03;19(1):461
    Background In an effort to mitigate missed opportunities to provide high-quality care, the World Health Organization (WHO) has developed the Safe Childbirth Checklist (SCC) to support health providers perform essential tasks. Our qualitative study is a baseline assessment of quality of care (QoC) perceived by mothers who gave birth at health facilities aiming to highlight areas where implementing the SCC can potentially improve the QoC as well as areas that are not part of the SCC yet require improvement. Methods Assessing the overall experience of care, our qualitative study focuses on 8 out of 29 items in the checklist that are related to the personal interactions between healthcare provider and mothers. Using a set of semi-structured questions, we interviewed 26 new mothers who gave institutional births in Aceh province in Indonesia. Results Our findings revealed some gaps where implementing the SCC can potentially improve safety and QoC. They include communicating danger signs at critical points during birth and after discharge, encouraging breastfeeding, and providing mothers with information on family planning. Moreover, taking a qualitative approach allowed us to identify additional aspects such as need for clarity at the point of admission, maintaining dignity, and protecting mothers’ rights in the decision-making process to be also essential for better QoC. Conclusions Our study highlights the need to actively listen to and engage with the experiences of women in the adaptation and implementation of the checklist. While our findings indicate that implementing the SCC has the potential to improve the quality of maternal care and overall birth experience, a more holistic understanding of the lived experiences of women and the dynamics of their interactions with health facilities, care providers, and their birth companions can complement the implementation of the checklist.
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  • Journal Article

    TWENTY‐FIRST‐CENTURY TRADE GOVERNANCE: FINDINGS FROM THE COMMONWEALTH COUNTRIES 

    Khorana, Sangeeta; Martínez‐Zarzoso, Inmaculada
    Contemporary Economic Policy
    To investigate the factors contributing to pioglitazone-induced edema, we analyzed sodium excretion and several clinical parameters before and after administration of pioglitazone. We analyzed these parameters before and after 8 weeks of administration of pioglitazone to female subjects with type 2 diabetes. When we evaluated whether a significant correlation was found between salt excretion and blood pressure, six patients showed such correlation and 20 patients did not. After 8 weeks of pioglitazone administration, five patients had developed edema, and, surprisingly, such correlation was not found in all five subjects. Salt excretion after administration of pioglitazone was significantly lower in subjects who developed edema and those who showed the correlation, and the hematocrit was significantly lower after administration in the subjects who showed the correlation, but not in the edema group. Pioglitazone-induced edema would be caused not only by fluid retention, but also by other factors, such as vascular permeability.
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  • Journal Article

    The Presentation of Self as Good and Right: How Value Propositions and Business Model Features are Linked in the Sharing Economy 

    Wruk, Dominika; Oberg, Achim; Klutt, Jennifer; Maurer, Indre
    Journal of Business Ethics 2019; 159(4) p.997-1021
    The sharing economy as an emerging field is characterized by unsettled debates about its shared purpose and defining characteristics of the organizations within this field. This study draws on neo-institutional theory to explore how sharing organizations position themselves vis-à-vis such debates with regard to (1) the values these organizations publicly promote to present themselves as “good” sharing organizations and (2) the business model features they make visible to appear as having the “right” organizational model. This study examines the online self-representations of 62 prototypical sharing organizations in Germany with regard to value propositions and business model features. A semantic network analysis of the features reveals two distinct categories of sharing organizations: grassroots initiatives and platform-based organizations. By showing how value propositions and business model features are linked in the sharing economy, the findings indicate the different legitimation strategies of grassroots initiatives and platform-based organizations, which we term “sustainability by model” and “sustainability by feature.” These findings broaden our understanding of the strategies that organizations apply to cope with societal expectations in the emerging sharing economy.
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  • Journal Article

    Prevalence and factors associated with underweight children: a population-based subnational analysis from Pakistan 

    Kumar, Ramesh; Abbas, Faisal; Mahmood, Tahir; Somrongthong, Ratana
    BMJ Open 2019; 9(7): Art. e028972
    OBJECTIVES: This study aims to determine the prevalence of and factors associated with underweight children under the age of 5 in Punjab, Pakistan. DESIGN: We analysed cross-sectional household-level subnationally representative Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey. SETTINGS: Punjab province, Pakistan. PARTICIPANTS: 24 042 children under 5 years of age. DATA ANALYSIS: Multilevel multivariate logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Prevalence of moderately and severely underweight children was found to be (33.3% and 11.3%, respectively). Multivariate multilevel logistic regression results show that as the child grows older the likelihood of the child being underweight increases significantly (eg, children between 12 and 23 months are one and half times more likely to be underweight, whereas children between the ages of 36 and 47 months are two and a half times more likely to be underweight). Gender was found to be another significant factor contributing to underweight prevalence among children under the age of 5. The likelihood of a girl child being underweight is more than that of a boy child being underweight (OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.8 to 1.0). Similarly, a child whose birth order is three or more is two times more likely to be underweight (OR 1.96, 95% CI 1.5 to 2.5) relative to a child of a lower birth order. Moreover, diarrhoea also significantly increases the likelihood of the child being underweight (OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.1 to 1.5). Child size is another determinant for underweight prevalence among children under 5, for example, a child with a size smaller than average at the time of birth is 2.7 times more likely to be moderately underweight than a child with an average or larger than average size at the time of birth. CONCLUSION: Rigorous community-based interventions should be developed and executed throughout the province to improve this grave situation of underweight prevalence in Punjab. Mother's education should be uplifted by providing them formal education and providing awareness about the importance of proper nutrition for children.
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  • Journal Article

    Public good provision by large groups – the logic of collective action revisited 

    Weimann, Joachim; Brosig-Koch, Jeannette; Heinrich, Timo; Hennig-Schmidt, Heike; Keser, Claudia
    European Economic Review 2019; 118 p.348-363
    The organization of collective action is extremely important for societies. A main reason is that many of the key problems societies face are public good problems. We present results from a series of laboratory experiments with large groups of up to 100 subjects. Our results demonstrate that large groups, in which the impact of an individual contribution ( MPCR ) is almost negligible, are able to provide a public good in the same way as small groups in which the impact of an individual contribution is much higher. Nevertheless, we find that small variations in MPCR in large groups have a strong effect on contributions. We develop a hypothesis concerning the interplay between MPCR and group size, which is based on the assumption that the salience of the advantages of mutual cooperation plays a decisive role. This hypothesis is successfully tested in a second series of experiments. Since Mancur Olson’s “Logic of collective action”it is a commonly held belief that in large groups the prospects of a successful organization of collective actions are rather bad. Our results, however, suggest that the chance to successfully organize collective action of large groups and to solve important public good problems is much higher than previously thought.
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  • Journal Article

    Too cold for warm glow? Christmas-season effects in charitable giving 

    Müller, Stephan; Rau, Holger A.
    PLOS ONE 2019; 14(5): Art. e0215844
    This paper analyzes seasonal effects and their potential drivers in charitable giving. We conduct two studies to analyze whether donations to the German Red Cross differ between the Christmas season and summer. In study 1 we find that in the pre-Christmas shopping season prosocial subjects almost donate 50% less compared to prosocials in summer. In study 2 we replicate the low donations in the Christmas season. In an extensive questionnaire we control for several causes of this effect. The data suggest that the higher prosocials' self-reported stress level, the lower the donations. The higher their relative savings, the lower the giving. Our questionnaire rules out that "donation fatigue" matters. That is, donations do not depend on the number of charitable campaigns subjects are confronted with and their engagement in these activities during Christmas season outside the lab.
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