### Recent Submissions

• Journal Article

#### New insights into the morphology and evolution of the ventral pharynx and jaws in Histriobdellidae (Eunicida, Annelida) ﻿

Zoological Letters 2020; 6(1) p.1-19: Art. 14
The jaw apparatus in several annelid families represents a powerful tool for systematic approaches and evolutionary investigations. Nevertheless, for several taxa, this character complex has scarcely been investigated, and complete comparative analyses of all annelid jaws are lacking. In our comprehensive study, we described the fine structure of the jaw apparatus and the ventral pharyngeal organ (VPO) in Histriobdella homari – a minute ectocommensal of lobsters putatively belonging to the Eunicida – using different comparative morphological approaches, including SEM, TEM, CLSM and subsequent 3D reconstruction. The H. homari jaw apparatus is composed of ventral paired mandibles and dorsal symmetrical maxillae consisting of numerous dental plates, ventral carriers and an unpaired dorsal rod, and the general assemblage and arrangement of the different parts are highly comparable to those of other eunicid families. The jaw ultrastructure of histriobdellids resembles that of the families Dorvilleidae and (juvenile) Onuphidae. Furthermore, our data reveal that in the process of development of the jaw apparatus, the mandibles, maxillae II and unpaired dorsal rod are formed first, and the remaining maxillae and ventral carriers appear later. Notably, the muscular apparatus differs from that in Dorvilleidae and Onuphidae in terms of the number and arrangement of muscle fibers encompassing the jaws – not only because of the very small size of Histriobdella but also because histriobdellid maxillary protraction occurs due to straightening of the dorsal rod and thus requires a different muscular scaffold. Based on our investigations, the arrangement of the muscular apparatus of the jaws, the presence of paired ventral carriers and the dorsal rod, and the morphology of the ventral pharyngeal organ represent a histriobdellid autapomorphy. Our datasets form a basis for further comparative analyses to elucidate the evolution of Eunicida and jaw-bearing Annelida.
• Journal Article

#### The relation of meiotic behaviour to hybridity, polyploidy and apomixis in the Ranunculus auricomus complex (Ranunculaceae) ﻿

BMC Plant Biology 2020; 20(1) p.1-14: Art. 523
Background Hybridization and polyploidization are powerful evolutionary factors that are associated with manifold developmental changes in plants such as irregular progression of meiosis and sporogenesis. The emergence of apomixis, which is asexual reproduction via seeds, is supposed to be connected to these factors and was often regarded as an escape from hybrid sterility. However, the functional trigger of apomixis is still unclear. Recently formed di- and polyploid Ranunculus hybrids, as well as their parental species were analysed for their modes of mega- and microsporogenesis by microscopy. Chromosomal configurations during male meiosis were screened for abnormalities. Meiotic and developmental abnormalities were documented qualitatively and collected quantitatively for statistical evaluations. Results Allopolyploids showed significantly higher frequencies of erroneous microsporogenesis than homoploid hybrid plants. Among diploids, F2 hybrids had significantly more disturbed meiosis than F1 hybrids and parental plants. Chromosomal aberrations included laggard chromosomes, chromatin bridges and disoriented spindle activities. Failure of megasporogenesis appeared to be much more frequent in than of microsporogenesis is correlated to apomixis onset. Conclusions Results suggest diverging selective pressures on female and male sporogenesis, with only minor effects of hybridity on microsporogenesis, but fatal effects on the course of megasporogenesis. Hence, pollen development continues without major alterations, while selection will favour apomixis as alternative to the female meiotic pathway. Relation of investigated errors of megasporogenesis with the observed occurrence of apospory in Ranunculus hybrids identifies disturbed female meiosis as potential elicitor of apomixis in order to rescue these plants from hybrid sterility. Male meiotic disturbance appears to be stronger in neopolyploids than in homoploid hybrids, while disturbances of megasporogenesis were not ploidy-dependent.
• Journal Article

#### Herbicide weed control increases nutrient leaching compared to mechanical weeding in a large-scale oil palm plantation ﻿

Biogeosciences 2020; 17(21) p.5243-5262
Nutrient leaching in intensively managed oil palm plantations can diminish soil fertility and water quality. There is a need to reduce this environmental footprint without sacrificing yield. In a large-scale oil palm plantation in Acrisol soil, we quantified nutrient leaching using a full factorial experiment with two fertilization rates (260 kg N, 50 kg P, and 220 kg K ha$^{−1}$ yr$^{−1}$ as conventional practice and 136 kg N, 17 kg P, and 187 kg K ha$^{−1}$ yr$^{−1}$, equal to harvest export, as reduced management) and two weeding methods (conventional herbicide application and mechanical weeding as reduced management) replicated in four blocks. Over the course of 1 year, we collected monthly soil pore water at 1.5 m depth in three distinct management zones: palm circle, inter-row, and frond-stacked area. Nutrient leaching in the palm circle was low due to low solute concentrations and small drainage fluxes, probably resulting from large plant uptake. In contrast, nitrate and aluminum leaching losses were high in the inter-row due to the high concentrations and large drainage fluxes, possibly resulting from low plant uptake and low pH. In the frond-stacked area, base cation leaching was high, presumably from frond litter decomposition, but N leaching was low. Mechanical weeding reduced leaching losses of base cations compared to the conventional herbicide weeding probably because herbicides decreased ground vegetation and thus reduced soil nutrient retention. Reduced fertilization rates diminished the nitrate leaching losses. Leaching of total nitrogen in the mechanical weeding with reduced fertilization treatment (32±6 kg N ha$^{−1}$ yr$^{−1}$) was less than half of the conventional management (74±20 kg N ha$^{−1}$ yr$^{−1}$), whereas yields were not affected by these treatments. Our findings suggest that mechanical weeding and reduced fertilization should be included in the program by the Indonesian Ministry of Agriculture for precision farming (e.g., variable rates with plantation age), particularly for large-scale oil palm plantations. We further suggest including mechanical weeding and reduced fertilization in science-based policy recommendations, such as those endorsed by the Roundtable for Sustainable Palm Oil association.
• Journal Article

#### Sequence heterochrony led to a gain of functionality in an immature stage of the central complex: A fly–beetle insight ﻿

PLOS Biology 2020; 18(10) p.1-32: Art. e3000881
Animal behavior is guided by the brain. Therefore, adaptations of brain structure and function are essential for animal survival, and each species differs in such adaptations. The brain of one individual may even differ between life stages, for instance, as adaptation to the divergent needs of larval and adult life of holometabolous insects. All such differences emerge during development, but the cellular mechanisms behind the diversification of brains between taxa and life stages remain enigmatic. In this study, we investigated holometabolous insects in which larvae differ dramatically from the adult in both behavior and morphology. As a consequence, the central complex, mainly responsible for spatial orientation, is conserved between species at the adult stage but differs between larvae and adults of one species as well as between larvae of different taxa. We used genome editing and established transgenic lines to visualize cells expressing the conserved transcription factor retinal homeobox, thereby marking homologous genetic neural lineages in both the fly Drosophila melanogaster and the beetle Tribolium castaneum. This approach allowed us for the first time to compare the development of homologous neural cells between taxa from embryo to the adult. We found complex heterochronic changes including shifts of developmental events between embryonic and pupal stages. Further, we provide, to our knowledge, the first example of sequence heterochrony in brain development, where certain developmental steps changed their position within the ontogenetic progression. We show that through this sequence heterochrony, an immature developmental stage of the central complex gains functionality in Tribolium larvae.
• Journal Article

#### Evapotranspiration over agroforestry sites in Germany ﻿

Biogeosciences 2020; 17(20) p.5183-5208
In the past few years, the interest in growing crops and trees for bioenergy production has increased. One agricultural practice is the mixed cultivation of fast-growing trees and annual crops or perennial grasslands on the same piece of land, which is referred to as one type of agroforestry (AF). The inclusion of tree strips into the agricultural landscape has been shown – on the one hand – to lead to reduced wind speeds and higher carbon sequestration above ground and in the soil. On the other hand, concerns have been raised about increased water losses to the atmosphere via evapotranspiration (ET). Therefore, we hypothesise that short rotation coppice agroforestry systems have higher water losses to the atmosphere via ET compared to monoculture (MC) agriculture without trees. In order to test the hypothesis, the main objective was to measure the actual evapotranspiration of five AF systems in Germany and compare those to five monoculture systems in the close vicinity of the AF systems. We measured actual ET at five AF sites in direct comparison to five monoculture sites in northern Germany in 2016 and 2017. We used an eddy covariance energy balance (ECEB) set-up and a low-cost eddy covariance (EC-LC) set-up to measure actual ET over each AF and each MC system. We conducted direct eddy covariance (EC) measurement campaigns with approximately 4 weeks' duration for method validation. Results from the short-term measurement campaigns showed a high agreement between ETEC-LC and ETEC, indicated by slopes of a linear regression analysis between 0.86 and 1.3 ($R^2$ between 0.7 and 0.94) across sites. Root mean square errors of $LE_{EC-LC}$ vs. $LE_{EC}$ (where LE is the latent heat flux) were half as small as $LE_{ECEB}$ vs. $LE_{EC}$, indicating a superior agreement of the EC-LC set-up with the EC set-up compared to the ECEB set-up. With respect to the annual sums of ET over AF and MC, we observed small differences between the two land uses. We interpret this as being an effect of compensating the small-scale differences in ET next to and in between the tree strips for ET measurements on the system scale. Most likely, the differences in ET rates next to and in between the tree strips are of the same order of magnitude, but of the opposite sign, and compensate each other throughout the year. Differences between annual sums of ET from the two methods were of the same order of magnitude as differences between the two land uses. Compared to the effect of land use and different methods on ET, we found larger mean evapotranspiration indices (∑ET/∑P ) across sites for a drier than normal year (2016) compared to a wet year (2017). This indicates that we were able to detect differences in ET due to different ambient conditions with the applied methods, rather than the potentially small effect of AF on ET. We conclude that agroforestry has not resulted in an increased water loss to the atmosphere, indicating that agroforestry in Germany can be a land-use alternative to monoculture agriculture without trees.
• Journal Article

#### Factors influencing German farmer’s decision to grow alley cropping systems as ecological focus areas: a regression analysis ﻿

International Food and Agribusiness Management Review 2020; 23(4) p.529-546
The cultivation of alley cropping agricultural wood is an opportunity to comply with the greening requirements of the common agricultural policy (CAP; 2014-2020), but farmers are not permitted to display the whole alley cropping system (ACS) as ecological focus area (EFA) in Germany. They can display the agricultural wood stripes separately as EFA instead. The willingness of farmers is of key importance for a successful establishment, but, so far, the acceptance of this greening measure is extremely low. The aim of this paper is therefore to point out factors which have linkages to the acceptance of ACS as EFAs by conducting an online survey among German conventional farmers. The results of the regression analysis show that factors such as attitude towards agricultural wood, level of professional education, location and social environment affect the acceptance of ACS as EFA. To conclude, starting points that promote this type of greening measure are identified.
• Journal Article

#### Pinacolone-Alcohol Gas-Phase Solvation Balances as Experimental Dispersion Benchmarks ﻿

Molecules 2020; 25(21) p.1-14: Art. 5095
The influence of distant London dispersion forces on the docking preference of alcohols of different size between the two lone electron pairs of the carbonyl group in pinacolone was explored by infrared spectroscopy of the OH stretching fundamental in supersonic jet expansions of 1:1 solvate complexes. Experimentally, no pronounced tendency of the alcohol to switch from the methyl to the bulkier tert-butyl side with increasing size was found. In all cases, methyl docking dominates by at least a factor of two, whereas DFT-optimized structures suggest a very close balance for the larger alcohols, once corrected by CCSD(T) relative electronic energies. Together with inconsistencies when switching from a C4 to a C5 alcohol, this points at deficiencies of the investigated B3LYP and in particular TPSS functionals even after dispersion correction, which cannot be blamed on zero point energy effects. The search for density functionals which describe the harmonic frequency shift, the structural change and the energy difference between the docking isomers of larger alcohols to unsymmetric ketones in a satisfactory way is open.
• Journal Article

#### Quantitative Hormone Signaling Output Analyses of Arabidopsis thaliana Interactions With Virulent and Avirulent Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis Isolates at Single-Cell Resolution ﻿

Frontiers in Plant Science 2020; 11 p.1-15: Art. 603693
The phytohormones salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), and ethylene (ET) are central regulators of biotic and abiotic stress responses in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, we generated modular fluorescent protein-based reporter lines termed COLORFUL-PR1pro, -VSP2pro, and -PDF1.2apro. These feature hormone-controlled nucleus-targeted transcriptional output sensors and the simultaneous constitutive expression of spectrally separated nuclear reference and plasma membrane-localized reporters. This set-up allowed the study of cell-type specific hormone activities, cellular viability and microbial invasion. Moreover, we developed a software-supported high-throughput confocal microscopy imaging protocol for output quantification to resolve the spatio-temporal dynamics of respective hormonal signaling activities at single-cell resolution. Proof-of-principle analyses in A. thaliana leaves revealed distinguished hormone sensitivities in mesophyll, epidermal pavement and stomatal guard cells, suggesting cell type-specific regulatory protein activities. In plant-microbe interaction studies, we found that virulent and avirulent Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis (Hpa) isolates exhibit different invasion dynamics and induce spatio-temporally distinct hormonal activity signatures. On the cellular level, these hormone-controlled reporter signatures demarcate the nascent sites of Hpa entry and progression, and highlight initiation, transduction and local containment of immune signals.
• Journal Article

#### A 3D Printed Device for Easy and Reliable Quantification of Fungal Chemotropic Growth ﻿

Frontiers in Microbiology 2020; 11 p.1-10: Art. 584525
Chemical gradients are surrounding living organisms in all habitats of life. Microorganisms, plants and animals have developed specific mechanisms to sense such gradients. Upon perception, chemical gradients can be categorized either as favorable, like nutrients or hormones, or as disadvantageous, resulting in a clear orientation toward the gradient and avoiding strategies, respectively. Being sessile organisms, fungi use chemical gradients for their orientation in the environment. Integration of this data enables them to successfully explore nutrient sources, identify probable plant or animal hosts, and to communicate during sexual reproduction or early colony development. We have developed a 3D printed device allowing a highly standardized, rapid and low-cost investigation of chemotropic growth processes in fungi. Since the 3D printed device is placed on a microscope slide, detailed microscopic investigations and documentation of the chemotropic process is possible. Using this device, we provide evidence that germlings derived from oval conidia of the hemibiotrophic plant pathogen Colletotrichum graminicola can sense gradients of glucose and reorient their growth toward the nutrient source. We describe in detail the method establishment, probable pitfalls, and provide the original program files for 3D printing to enable broad application of the 3D device in basic, agricultural, medical, and applied fungal science.
• Journal Article

#### Actions do not speak louder than words in an interactive false belief task ﻿

Royal Society Open Science 2020; 7(10) p.1-23: Art. 191998
• Journal Article

#### Using Local Convolutional Neural Networks for Genomic Prediction ﻿

Frontiers in Genetics 2020; 11 p.1-14: Art. 561497
The prediction of breeding values and phenotypes is of central importance for both livestock and crop breeding. In this study, we analyze the use of artificial neural networks (ANN) and, in particular, local convolutional neural networks (LCNN) for genomic prediction, as a region-specific filter corresponds much better with our prior genetic knowledge on the genetic architecture of traits than traditional convolutional neural networks. Model performances are evaluated on a simulated maize data panel (n = 10,000; p = 34,595) and real Arabidopsis data (n = 2,039; p = 180,000) for a variety of traits based on their predictive ability. The baseline LCNN, containing one local convolutional layer (kernel size: 10) and two fully connected layers with 64 nodes each, is outperforming commonly proposed ANNs (multi layer perceptrons and convolutional neural networks) for basically all considered traits. For traits with high heritability and large training population as present in the simulated data, LCNN are even outperforming state-of-the-art methods like genomic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP), Bayesian models and extended GBLUP, indicated by an increase in predictive ability of up to 24%. However, for small training populations, these state-of-the-art methods outperform all considered ANNs. Nevertheless, the LCNN still outperforms all other considered ANNs by around 10%. Minor improvements to the tested baseline network architecture of the LCNN were obtained by increasing the kernel size and of reducing the stride, whereas the number of subsequent fully connected layers and their node sizes had neglectable impact. Although gains in predictive ability were obtained for large scale data sets by using LCNNs, the practical use of ANNs comes with additional problems, such as the need of genotyping all considered individuals, the lack of estimation of heritability and reliability. Furthermore, breeding values are additive by design, whereas ANN-based estimates are not. However, ANNs also comes with new opportunities, as networks can easily be extended to account for additional inputs (omics, weather etc.) and outputs (multi-trait models), and computing time increases linearly with the number of individuals. With advances in high-throughput phenotyping and cheaper genotyping, ANNs can become a valid alternative for genomic prediction.
• Journal Article

#### In-depth studies on the modifying effects of natural ageing on the chemical structure of European spruce (Picea abies) and silver fir (Abies alba) woods ﻿

Journal of Wood Science 2020; 66(1) p.1-11: Art. 77
Abstract Wood is usually stable under relatively dry conditions but may still undergo slow deterioration. The type of deterioration and how these processes affect the wood are important questions that need consideration if old wooden structures are to be studied and properly preserved. The aim of this paper is to establish the main structural and morphological differences between new and naturally aged European spruce (~ 150–200 years) and silver fir wood (~ 150 years). Naturally aged European spruce (a) was sourced from an outdoor part of a building constructed in the seventeenth century and naturally aged European spruce (b) were obtained from a furniture item located in a historical building from the eighteenth century. The principal age-induced changes in fir are the degradation of C–O and C=O groups in hemicellulose, according to the FTIR analysis. Degradation of cellulose and hemicelluloses was observed for spruce, with a greater effect seen in the indoor aged sample. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) showed that after aging C–C/C–H peaks were smaller in the spruce and fir samples, while C–O and O–C–O peaks were larger. The crystallinity index (CrI) obtained by X-ray diffraction showed that due to weathering the CrI of naturally aged spruce (a) increased compared to the new wood. The CrI of the aged spruce (b) and aged fir was lower than in the new woods. The ratios for the spruce sample, which aged indoors, were higher than those for the one aged outdoors. According to the observations made in this study, hemicellulose and cellulose are easily degraded under environmental conditions.
• Journal Article

#### The High Osmolarity Glycerol Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase regulates glucose catabolite repression in filamentous fungi ﻿

PLOS Genetics 2020; 16(8) p.1-27: Art. e1008996
The utilization of different carbon sources in filamentous fungi underlies a complex regulatory network governed by signaling events of different protein kinase pathways, including the high osmolarity glycerol (HOG) and protein kinase A (PKA) pathways. This work unraveled cross-talk events between these pathways in governing the utilization of preferred (glucose) and non-preferred (xylan, xylose) carbon sources in the reference fungus Aspergillus nidulans. An initial screening of a library of 103 non-essential protein kinase (NPK) deletion strains identified several mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) to be important for carbon catabolite repression (CCR). We selected the MAPKs Ste7, MpkB, and PbsA for further characterization and show that they are pivotal for HOG pathway activation, PKA activity, CCR via regulation of CreA cellular localization and protein accumulation, as well as for hydrolytic enzyme secretion. Protein-protein interaction studies show that Ste7, MpkB, and PbsA are part of the same protein complex that regulates CreA cellular localization in the presence of xylan and that this complex dissociates upon the addition of glucose, thus allowing CCR to proceed. Glycogen synthase kinase (GSK) A was also identified as part of this protein complex and shown to potentially phosphorylate two serine residues of the HOG MAPKK PbsA. This work shows that carbon source utilization is subject to cross-talk regulation by protein kinases of different signaling pathways. Furthermore, this study provides a model where the correct integration of PKA, HOG, and GSK signaling events are required for the utilization of different carbon sources.
• Journal Article

#### Protists and collembolans alter microbial community composition, C dynamics and soil aggregation in simplified consumer–prey systems ﻿

Biogeosciences 2020; 17(20) p.4961-4980
Microbes play an essential role in soil functioning including biogeochemical cycling and soil aggregate formation. Yet, a major challenge is to link microbes to higher trophic levels and assess consequences for soil functioning. Here, we aimed to assess how microbial consumers modify microbial community composition (PLFA markers), as well as C dynamics (microbial C use, SOC concentration and CO$_2$ emission) and soil aggregation. We rebuilt two simplified soil consumer–prey systems: a bacterial-based system comprising amoebae (Acanthamoeba castellanii) feeding on a microbial community dominated by the free-living bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens and a fungal-based system comprising collembolans (Heteromurus nitidus) grazing on a microbial community dominated by the saprotrophic fungus Chaetomium globosum. The amoeba A. castellanii did not affect microbial biomass and composition, but it enhanced the formation of soil aggregates and tended to reduce their stability. Presumably, the dominance of P. fluorescens, able to produce antibiotic toxins in response to the attack by A. castellanii, was the main cause of the unchanged microbial community composition, and the release of bacterial extracellular compounds, such as long-chained polymeric substances or proteases, in reaction to predation was responsible for the changes in soil aggregation as a side effect. In the fungal system, collembolans significantly modified microbial community composition via consumptive and non-consumptive effects including the transport of microbes on the body surface. As expected, fungal biomass promoted soil aggregation and was reduced in the presence of H. nitidus. Remarkably, we also found an unexpected contribution of changes in bacterial community composition to soil aggregation. In both the bacterial and fungal systems, bacterial and fungal communities mainly consumed C from soil organic matter (rather than the litter added). Increased fungal biomass was associated with an increased capture of C from added litter, and the presence of collembolans levelled off this effect. Neither amoebae nor collembolans altered SOC concentrations and CO$_2$ production. Overall, the results demonstrated that trophic interactions are important for achieving a mechanistic understanding of biological contributions to soil aggregation and may occur without major changes in C dynamics and with or without changes in the composition of the microbial community.
• Journal Article

#### Surface Activation of Polylactic Acid-Based Wood-Plastic Composite by Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Treatment ﻿

Materials 2020; 13(20) p.1-13: Art. 4673
Wood-plastic composite (WPC) based on a polylactic acid (PLA) matrix is a promising material since it is biobased, degradable, sustainable, and 3D printable. However, due to its coloring, visible layers after 3D-printing, and small build volumes of these printers, a coating or gluing of parts might be required. This study investigates the influence of a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma treatment of PLA-based WPC to activate the surface and improve, e.g., coating capabilities. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements showed the oxidation of the surface due to the formation of carbonyl and carboxyl groups. Laser scanning microscopy revealed a surface roughening after the treatment. Contact angles of water and diiodomethane decreased significantly after the plasma treatment and the consecutively calculated surface free energy increased. Finally, two practical adhesion tests revealed an improvement of the applied acrylic dispersion coating’s adhesion to the WPC surface: The assigned cross-cut class improved, and the pull-off strength increased from 1.4 to 2.3 N/mm$^2$.
• Journal Article

#### Legacy Effects Overshadow Tree Diversity Effects on Soil Fungal Communities in Oil Palm-Enrichment Plantations ﻿

Microorganisms 2020; 8(10) p.1-17: Art. 1577
Financially profitable large-scale cultivation of oil palm monocultures in previously diverse tropical rain forest areas constitutes a major ecological crisis today. Not only is a large proportion of the aboveground diversity lost, but the belowground soil microbiome, which is important for the sustainability of soil function, is massively altered. Intermixing oil palms with native tree species promotes vegetation biodiversity and stand structural complexity in plantations, but the impact on soil fungi remains unknown. Here, we analyzed the diversity and community composition of soil fungi three years after tree diversity enrichment in an oil palm plantation in Sumatra (Indonesia). We tested the effects of tree diversity, stand structural complexity indices, and soil abiotic conditions on the diversity and community composition of soil fungi. We hypothesized that the enrichment experiment alters the taxonomic and functional community composition, promoting soil fungal diversity. Fungal community composition was affected by soil abiotic conditions (pH, N, and P), but not by tree diversity and stand structural complexity indices. These results suggest that intensive land use and abiotic filters are a legacy to fungal communities, overshadowing the structuring effects of the vegetation, at least in the initial years after enrichment plantings.
• Journal Article

#### Bringing Policy Decisions to the People—Education for Sustainable Development through a Digital Simulation Game ﻿

Sustainability 2020; 12(20) p.1-18: Art. 8743
After repeated warnings by the European Commission regarding high nitrate concentrations in German waters, in 2017, Germany implemented a new fertilizer application ordinance (FO) with stricter nitrate value limits. The new regulations have severely affected agricultural regions in Germany and could lead to a high number of job losses if farmers must conform to the new regulations and do not implement new production methods. Therefore, a simulation game was developed to educate farmers and residents about the new FO and to facilitate adaptation to the new environmentally friendly legislation. The aims of the newly developed simulation game are to educate residents and farmers in affected regions about the new FO and to develop new ideas on how to comply with the new regulations. The aims of the present study are, first, to research participants’ evaluation of the simulation game and, second, to assess the effect of the simulation game on subjective knowledge, internal efficacy, and attitude towards the new FO. This pre- and post-comparison design study was based on pre-test and post-test with participants in two games (N = 90). The results were analyzed using descriptive statistics, multiple regression analyses, qualitative content analysis, and mean value comparisons. The simulation game had a positive effect on participants’ subjective knowledge (Cohen’s d 0.65) and internal efficacy (Cohen’s d 0.36), but it did not have an effect on their attitudes toward the new FO, and it was shown to slightly lower their interest in agriculture politics (Cohen’s d −0.33). The participants reported that the game made them more aware of both the difficulty and necessity of finding compromises in the field of agriculture politics. Overall, the simulation was rated very positively and was perceived as interesting and informative by the participants.
• Journal Article

#### Implications of Development Cooperation and State Bureaucracy on Climate Change Adaptation Policy in Bangladesh ﻿

Climate 2020; 8(10) p.1-24: Art. 118
• Journal Article

#### High microphone signal-to-noise ratio enhances acoustic sampling of wildlife ﻿

PeerJ 2020; 8 p.1-21: Art. e9955
Background. Automated sound recorders are a popular sampling tool in ecology. However, the microphones themselves received little attention so far, and specifications that determine the recordings' sound quality are seldom mentioned. Here, we demonstrate the importance of microphone signal-to-noise ratio for sampling sonant animals. Methods. We tested 12 different microphone models in the field and measured their signal-to-noise ratios and detection ranges. We also measured the vocalisation activity of birds and bats that they recorded, the bird species richness, the bat call types richness, as well as the performance of automated detection of bird and bat calls. We tested the relationship of each one of these measures with signal-to-noise ratio in statistical models. Results. Microphone signal-to-noise ratio positively affects the sound detection space areas, which increased by a factor of 1.7 for audible sound, and 10 for ultrasound, from the lowest to the highest signal-to-noise ratio microphone. Consequently, the sampled vocalisation activity increased by a factor of 1.6 for birds, and 9.7 for bats. Correspondingly, the species pool of birds and bats could not be completely detected by the microphones with lower signal-to-noise ratio. The performance of automated detection of bird and bat calls, as measured by its precision and recall, increased significantly with microphone signal-to-noise ratio. Discussion. Microphone signal-to-noise ratio is a crucial characteristic of a sound recording system, positively affecting the acoustic sampling performance of birds and bats. It should be maximised by choosing appropriate microphones, and be quantified independently, especially in the ultrasound range.
• Journal Article

#### A Global Survey on Diseases and Pests in Oilseed Rape—Current Challenges and Innovative Strategies of Control ﻿

Frontiers in Agronomy 2020; 2 p.1-15: Art. 590908
The introduction of high-yielding and hybrid cultivars and the opening of new markets in the food and feed sector have steadily increased rapeseed production since the 1980s in the main production regions, Canada, Europe, China, India, and Australia. Since the 1990s, however, the average growth rate of yields has declined in Europe and Australia, which has been associated with a less effective control of biotic stresses. A global survey including the knowledge of 22 experts from 10 countries revealed a total of 16 diseases, 37 insect pests, several species of nematodes, and slugs currently affecting rapeseed production globally. A ranking of the top 10 most important biotic stresses in the four global regions where Brassica napus is grown (Canada, China, Europe, Australia) indicated an increase in several important stresses and distinct regional differences in the priority of prevailing diseases and pests. A stronger overlap exists among diseases, with Sclerotinia stem rot, Phoma stem canker, and clubroot occurring in all the four global regions on the top 10 list, while the range of prevailing insect pests was more diverse among the regions, with no top 10 insect playing an equally important role worldwide. Management options are substantially broader in disease than in pest control, making the latter the larger challenge. Since common integrated pest management (IPM) tools such as crop rotation, soil management, resistant cultivars or biocontrol are ineffective or not available, insect control largely relies on insecticides. Increasing restrictions on insecticide use, particularly in Europe, and losses in insecticide efficacy threaten the profitability of oilseed rape production and its role as an important break crop in cereal dominated cropping systems. Since the survival time of insects in the absence of their main host is relatively short (<1 year), a regional synchronization of cropping schemes resulting in one or more years without the crop could lead to a substantial disruption of regional insect populations. If rotation schemes were implemented on the landscape instead the farm level, by coordination among growers in zones covering the range distances of insect pests, an efficient and chemical low management strategy could be established and enable a more sustainable rapeseed production in the future.