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    The Earliest Balance Weights in the West: Towards an Independent Metrology for Bronze Age Europe 

    Ialongo, Nicola
    Cambridge Archaeological Journal p.1-22
    Weighing devices are the earliest material correlates of the rational quantification of economic value, and they yield great potential in the study of trade in pre-literate societies. However, the knowledge of European Bronze Age metrology is still underdeveloped in comparison to Eastern Mediterranean regions, mostly due to the lack of a proper scientific debate. This paper introduces a theoretical and methodological framework for the study of standard weight-systems in pre-literate societies, and tests it on a large sample of potential balance weights distributed between Southern Italy and Central Europe during the Bronze Age (second–early first millennium bc). A set of experimental expectations is defined on the basis of comparisons with ancient texts, archaeological cases and modern behaviour. Concurrent typological, use-wear, statistical and contextual analyses allow to cross-check the evidence against the expectations, and to validate the balance-weight hypothesis for the sample under analysis. The paper urges a reappraisal of an independent weight metrology for Bronze Age Europe, based on adequate methodologies and a critical perspective.
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    Breaking down the bullion. The compliance of bullion-currencies with official weight-systems in a case-study from the ancient Near East 

    Ialongo, Nicola; Vacca, Agnese; Peyronel, Luca
    Journal of Archaeological Science 2018; 91 p.20-32
    In this paper we provide an analytical insight on a specific form of bullion-currency. Through the comparison of the statistical properties of different samples of hacksilver and balance weights from various contexts of the Near Eastern Bronze Age, the study attempts to assess whether the weight values of bullion-currencies can be expected to comply with existing weight-standards. The results of the statistical analyses on a silver hoard from Ebla (Syria) strongly suggest that hacksilver in the Bronze Age Near East was shaped and/or fragmented in order to comply with the weight-systems that were in use in the trade networks where it circulated. The results also show the possibility to quantify the level of affinity between different weight-systems. The study is intended to provide a starting point for future research, aimed at the identification of different forms of bullion-currencies in pre- and protohistoric economies.
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    Under Control? Or Border (as) Conflict: Reflections on the European Border Regime 

    Hess, Sabine; Kasparek, Bernd
    Social Inclusion 2017; 5(3) p.58-68
    The migrations of 2015 have led to a temporary destabilization of the European border and migration regime. In this contribution, we trace the process of destabilization to its various origins, which we locate around the year 2011, and offer a preliminary assessment of the attempts at re-stabilization. We employ the notion of “border (as) conflict” to emphasize that crisis and exception lies at the very core of the European border and migration regime and its four main dimensions of externalization, techno-scientific borders, an internal mobility regime for asylum seekers, and humanitarization.
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    Decolonial Perspectives on Charitable Spaces of “Welcome Culture” in Germany 

    Braun, Katherine
    Social Inclusion 2017; 5(3) p.38-48
    This article focusses on the relationships between volunteers and refugees in the German “welcome culture”. I highlight the continuities between historical and colonial notions of feminine charity and contemporary volunteering efforts in support of refugees in Germany. The “welcome culture” is conceived here as a charitable space that is historically sedimented by specific understandings of gender, racial and class difference. In particular, the difference between the modern emancipated female volunteer and the female oppressed refugee plays a central role. The question of female self-determination, then, becomes an important social arena in the German “welcome culture”, through which the rate and terms of participation of refugees in social life are negotiated. Thus I draw on decolonial thought as well as theoretical insights from post-development scholarship and critical studies of humanitarianism in order to consider the multitemporal and transnational character of current “welcome culture” as well as to gain a better understanding of the entailed power relations. These are more contingent than might first appear. Presenting findings from my ongoing fieldwork I conclude that the notion of “welcome culture” allows for the emergence of new forms of sociality.
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    The transfer of science to Europe through Arabic and the use of Arabic sources until the Renaissance 

    Schwartz, Werner
    al-Maǧalla al-ʿarabīya li-'ṯ-ṯaqāfa 2017; 63 p.3-63
    The article follows the main steps in the movement of scientific works and ideas from the Muslim East to the Muslim West and further on to Latin Europe. Of the numerous medieval scholars and their works only a few can be mentioned. The main phases in the transfer of knowledge, however, and its reception are briefly described in their historic context. Today we know more about this transfer than only a few decades ago. At the same time, it seems to be more difficult than before to assess the influence Arabic works of science had on the advance of European science and technology in early modern Europe. The reason for such a difficulty is the tremendous increase in information gained from ongoing research. This adds to the complexity of the picture that we try to draw of this development. The present article gives a concise but selective overview of recent research published in European languages.
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    Sustainable Urban Agriculture in Ghana: What Governance System Works? 

    Bogweh Nchanji, Eileen
    Sustainability 2017; 9(11)
    Urban farming takes advantage of its proximity to market, transport and other urban infrastructure to provide food for the city and sustain the livelihoods of urban and peri-urban dwellers. It is an agricultural activity which employs more than 50% of the local urban population with positive and negative impacts on local and national development. Urban agriculture is an informal activity not supported by law but in practice is regulated to a certain extent by state institutions, traditional rulers, farmers and national and international non-governmental organisations. Tamale’s rapid population growth, exacerbated by the unplanned development system and institutional conflicts, are factors contributing to the present bottlenecks in the urban agricultural system. In this paper, these bottlenecks are conceptualised as problems of governance. These issues will be illustrated using ethnographic data from land sales, crop-livestock competition, waste-water irrigation, and markets. I will explain how conflicts which arise from these different situations are resolved through the interactions of various governance systems. Informal governance arrangements are widespread, but neither they nor formal systems are always successful in resolving governance issues. A participatory governance does not seem possible due to actors’ divergent interests. A governance solution for this sector is not yet apparent, contributing to food and nutritional insecurity.
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    Perception of the International Women’s Day Celebration in Cameroon: The Case of Biyem-Assi neighborhood, Yaoundé 

    Abia, Wilfred A.; Nchanji, Eileen Bogweh; Asongwed, Corine Ufei; Abia, Eucharia A.; Anam, Jeom A. A.; Longsi, Vanessa T.; Bahche, David B.; Umaru, Aminatu N.; Asumpta, Wanda N.; Funfe, Yvette N.; et al.
    Teneng, Alvin T.Bati, Albertine M.J.Nfor, Neris M.Taju, Deckler Nyarei
    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GENDER & WOMEN'S STUDIES 2016; 4(2) p.44-52
    The International Women’s Day Celebration started as a socialist political movement, which fought for women’s right to vote and better working conditions. Over the years this movement has fought for education, health, poverty, political integration, violence, armed conflict and the aspirations of the girl child. In Cameroon presently, the perception of women about the International Women’s Day Celebrations is not fully appraised. A survey was carried out for a week in Biyem-Assi neighborhood after the International Women’s Day Celebration (IWDC). The aim of this study was to generate knowledge on a gendered perception of the International Women’s day celebration and the practices attached to it. The survey revealed that 50% of women were perceived to celebrate this day for no reason, as most of them did not know the theme for the day. Also, 88.9% of women indulged in a lot of alcohol with most drunk and other malpractices. The findings speculate that the IWDC is about to lose its political flavour if no action is taken. Women and men both accepted that there was a need for women to be educated more on the importance and relevance of the International Women’s day and its celebrations.
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    Non-Verbal Communication 

    Surkamp, Carola
    Scenario 2014; 8(2)
    Even though non-verbal communication is an essential part of communicative situations, it still is a neglected issue in foreign language teaching. This is quite surprising as no language learner can achieve communicative competence without having some knowledge of non-verbal phenomena, which make communication authentic and serve numerous functions needed for communicative success.Teaching a combination of verbal and non-verbal aspects of communication has positive effects on the language learning process in general and on the students’ willingness to communicate in particular. Furthermore, it is important for language learners to become aware of the role non-verbal communication plays in intercultural encounters. Additionally, the knowledge and awareness of the functions of non-verbal communication also help to develop literary competence since non-verbal phenomena contribute to a text’s meaning and its effect on the reader in both drama and prose.The objectives of this paper are to outline the nature and functions of non-verbal communication, to show why integrating non-verbal phenomena into different areas of FLT can be highly valuable, and to present drama activities that help sensitise students to non-verbal aspects of communication in various contexts.
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    El interés chileno por aprender y conservar el idioma mapudungun en ChileEl interés chileno por aprender y conservar el idioma mapudungun en Chile 

    Pfefferle, Jana
    Onomázein Revista de lingüística, filología y traducción(32) p.305-314
    El idioma indígena del pueblo mapuche en Chile, el mapudungun, está en peligro de extinción a causa de que su uso ha sido y es discriminado en la sociedad. Como medida para conservar el idioma, el gobierno chileno ha implementado programas para enseñar el mapudungun en algunos colegios con una alta tasa de niños mapuches. Pero las medidas tomadas no alcanzan para realmente conservar el idioma ni dan acceso a todos los chilenos con raíces indígenas a una educación bilingüe. El objetivo de este estudio fue la investigación del apoyo de la sociedad chilena para una educación bilingüe para todos los chilenos y para la conservación del idioma mapudungun. La opinión chilena fue investigada a través de una encuesta en línea, en la que se muestra la tendencia, por lo menos de algunos sectores de la sociedad, a apoyar la conservación y el aprendizaje del mapudungun en colegios chilenos, no solo por parte de niños y niñas mapuches, sino también por parte del resto.
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    Religion publique et médiation religieuse chez les musulmans mauriciens 

    Eisenlohr, Patrick
    Social Compass 2014; 61(1) p.48-56
    The uses of sound reproduction among Mauritian Muslims illustrate the links between public religion and religious mediation. These two dimensions of religion rely on material objects and media technologies, coalescing in what are frequently the same media practices. In this essay I investigate the ambiguous relationships between these two mediated forms of religion, tracing their mutually supporting and conflictual relationships. Their articulations also provide insights into questions of religious authority and authenticity that are prominent in a diasporic location such as Mauritius, as well as into the constitution of the boundary between religion and non-religion through media practices.
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    La religion dans le roman feuilleton allemand 

    Daiber, Karl-Fritz
    Social Compass 1987; 34(1) p.109-129
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    Meaning More than They Say: The Conflict between Yhwh and Jonah* 

    Barrett, Rob
    Journal for the Study of the Old Testament 2012; 37(2) p.237-257
    Interpretations of the book of Jonah regularly focus on the prophet's explanation of his flight in 4.2 and Yhwh's explanation of the qiqayon in 4.10–11 to illuminate the main characters' conflict. However, neither speech is particularly explanatory. Additionally, closer examination of Jonah's words is suggested by his ironic and self-implicating speech elsewhere in the book. Yhwh's logic relating the qiqayon to Nineveh is also far from transparent. The reader is left to work out the nature of their conflict. In this article it is argued that the book focuses less on Yhwh's relationship with Nineveh than on pressing Jonah to recognize Yhwh's compassion for him, and that he is the only one in the entire world of the book that is unresponsive to Yhwh.
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    Decadence and indifferentiation in the ideology of the Front National 

    Almeida, Dimitri
    French Cultural Studies 2014; 25(2) p.221-232
    Decadence, moral decay and national disintegration are obsessively recurrent themes in the narratives of the French radical right. This article explores the topos of decadence in the Front National’s ideology through a content analysis of speeches and campaign material ranging from the 1980s until 2012. Beginning with an interpretation of decadence based on René Girard’s discussion of persecution-legitimising texts, the article argues that the Front National’s discourse on decadence revolves around the idea of a crisis of differences and an acceleration of exchanges presented as unnatural. This point is developed in relation to the role of sexuality in the party’s profile and to the logics of historical development and political agency inherent to the Front National’s understanding of decadence. Decadence, I argue, is indissociable from indifferentiation – the fear of seeing the disappearance of differences conceived as fundamental for the preservation of national order.
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    Archives and history: Towards a history of ‘the use of state archives’ in the 19th century 

    Müller, Philipp
    History of the Human Sciences 2013; 26(4) p.27-49
    This article probes the relationship between archives and history by examining the archive policy on historical research in the first modern administration state of the German lands, the kingdom of Bavaria. Given the continuing tradition of the theory and practice of the arcana imperii in the 19th century, state archives served first and foremost the state. As a result, researchers’ interest in archival material was to undergo an administrative vetting procedure, in order to safeguard the interests of the state. By examining comparatively the cases of two petitioners supplicating for the historical use of state archives in Munich, the article showcases the policy of secrecy and the resultant administrative threshold separating the sphere of the arcana from the public. Caution guided the archive politics of state officials and, ultimately, their more or less explicit notions and concerns decided which material was finally to be released, in order to become a ‘source’ for historical study. Historical researchers such as the writer Ales- sandro Volpi and the historian August Kluckhohn were thus required to meet specific criteria and to overcome political hurdles, in order to gain access to the desired clues guarded by the state. As a result of this, the opportunity to inspect archival material was very much dependent on the political communication between petitioner and govern- ment, and its result, the granting or denial of access, was not without ramifications for historical research and the epistemic status of historical knowledge.
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    Local History of a Global Commodity: Production of Coffee in Mysore and Coorg in the Nineteenth Century 

    Bhattacharya, Bhaswati
    Indian Historical Review 2014; 41(1) p.67-86
    When was large scale production of coffee in India, and what role did global capital play in the process? How did indigenous capital respond to the plantation sector? Taking a petition submitted by some European coffee planters of the Mysore Planters’ Association in December 1864 as a point of departure this article attempts at answering these questions by analysing the initial phase of the coffee industry in Mysore and Coorg in Karnataka. The petitioners claimed that the tax they paid on coffee was much higher than coffee planters elsewhere in India had to pay. The authorities concerned sought experts’ opinion on the petition, and came to the conclusion that the claims made in the petition were baseless. By comparing the role of the European and Indian enterprise in the coffee industry, the article contributes to the ongoing discourses on dual economy and the response of indigenous in the face of Western capital.
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    Kinship Networks, Local Government, and Elections in a Town in Southwest Germany, 1800-1850 

    Lipp, Carola
    Journal of Family History 2005; 30(4) p.347-365
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    Que devient l'Église Évangélique d'Allemagne? 

    Daiber, Karl Fritz
    Social Compass 1985; 32(2-3) p.229-232
    In West Germany, more than 1.5 million people say that they have left the Evangelical Church over the past 10 years. What is happening with this Church ? Are we witnessing the beginning of a collapse? Or is this more now slowing down? First of all we must look at the facts against the back-ground of the German Aufklärung. We will then see that whereas church membership is pitched at a high level, church tradition attaches greater importance to the demands of a life oriented by Christian morals than to attending services. But this move away from the Church must also be linked to a process at work in many other organizations: members who can no longer identify with the organization distance themselves from it. Where work within the Church is concerned, this implies that greater importance be attached to dialogue between the grass roots and those at the top.
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    Media, activism and the new political: ‘Istanbul conversations’ on new media and left politics 

    Punathambekar, Aswin; Roy, Srirupa; Sabry, Tarik; Haugbolle, Sune
    Media, Culture & Society 2014; 36(7) p.1045-1056
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    Objectivity and the Escape from Perspective 

    Daston, Lorraine
    Social Studies of Science 1992; 22(4) p.597-618
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    Accent in Thematic Nouns 

    Keydana, Götz
    Indo-European Linguistics 2013; 1(1) p.107-130
    In this paper I show that the columnar accent of the o-stems can be integrated into a simple accent grammar of PIE. After establishing the general pattern I demonstrate how the accented and unaccented thematic suffixes fit into the picture. The grammatical sketch leads to the conclusion that it is unnecessary to assume any break between a more ancient PIE stratum with consonant stems and a more recent one with vocalic stems, each with its own accent and ablaut patterns. In the second part a morphological network for deriving the accent patterns of internal derivation in o-stems is developed. In a short outlook I show that the simple mechanism of accent inversion developed here also accounts for internal derivation in consonant stems and for accent shifts in compounds.
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